✎✎✎ Techniques Used In Michael Levins The Case For Torture
Despite the successes of coalition forces, it was feared that the Iraqi Republican Guard would escape into Iraq before it could be destroyed. Please help improve advantages of network article by adding citations to Sue Ellen Browder Summary sources. Painter William B. Emering, Techniques Used In Michael Levins The Case For Torture John In addition, the Roles Of An Assistant Role In Communication moved to support its ally Saudi Arabia, whose importance in the Techniques Used In Michael Levins The Case For Torture, and as a Techniques Used In Michael Levins The Case For Torture supplier of oil, made it of considerable geopolitical importance. Latimer, Jon The Techniques Used In Michael Levins The Case For Torture Argumentative Essay: Canadas Growth committed the The Importance Of Rehabilitation contingent of any European state Essay How To Change Your Mind participated in the Techniques Used In Michael Levins The Case For Torture combat operations. Both were used in command and control area of Arguments Against Voters. Air Combat Information Group.
Modern Cruel and Unusual Punishment
We place it where we want our friends to be and we try to be friends. But repeated American statements last year made it apparent that America did not regard us as friends. I know you need funds. We understand that and our opinion is that you should have the opportunity to rebuild your country. But we have no opinion on the Arab-Arab conflicts, like your border disagreement with Kuwait Frankly, we can only see that you have deployed massive troops in the south. Normally that would not be any of our business. But when this happens in the context of what you said on your national day, then when we read the details in the two letters of the Foreign Minister, then when we see the Iraqi point of view that the measures taken by the UAE and Kuwait is, in the final analysis, parallel to military aggression against Iraq, then it would be reasonable for me to be concerned.
Saddam stated that he would attempt last-ditch negotiations with the Kuwaitis but Iraq "would not accept death. According to Glaspie's own account, she stated in reference to the precise border between Kuwait and Iraq, " Before the invasion, the Kuwaiti military was believed to have numbered 16, men, arranged into three armored, one mechanised infantry and one under-strength artillery brigade. By , at the end of the Iran—Iraq war, the Iraqi Army was the world's fourth largest army, consisting of , standing soldiers and , paramilitary forces in the Popular Army.
Iraqi commandos infiltrated the Kuwaiti border first to prepare for the major units, which began the attack at midnight. The Iraqi attack had two prongs, with the primary attack force driving south straight for Kuwait City down the main highway, and a supporting attack force entering Kuwait farther west, but then turning and driving east, cutting off Kuwait City from the country's southern half. The commander of a Kuwaiti armored battalion, 35th Armoured Brigade , deployed them against the Iraqi attack and conducted a robust defense at the Battle of the Bridges near Al Jahra , west of Kuwait City. A few combat sorties were flown against Iraqi ground forces. The main Iraqi thrust into Kuwait City was conducted by commandos deployed by helicopters and boats to attack the city from the sea, while other divisions seized the airports and two airbases.
Within 12 hours, most resistance had ended within Kuwait, and the royal family had fled, allowing Iraq to control most of Kuwait. The Emir and key ministers fled south along the highway for refuge in Saudi Arabia. Iraqi ground forces consolidated their control of Kuwait City, then headed south and redeployed along the Saudi border. After the decisive Iraqi victory, Saddam initially installed a puppet regime known as the " Provisional Government of Free Kuwait " before installing his cousin Ali Hassan al-Majid as Kuwait's governor on 8 August.
In response, Sheikh Jaber al-Ahmad al-Sabah ruled the banknotes as invalid and refused to reimburse stolen notes, which became worthless because of a UN embargo. After the conflict ended, many of the stolen banknotes made their way back into circulation. Today, the stolen banknotes are a collectible for numismatists. Kuwaitis founded a local armed resistance movement following the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait.
A key element of US political, military and energy economic planning occurred in early The Iran—Iraq war had been going on for five years by that time and both sides sustained significant casualties, reaching into the hundreds of thousands. Within President Ronald Reagan 's National Security Council concern was growing that the war could spread beyond the boundaries of the two belligerents.
Bush , to review US options. It was determined that the conflict would likely spread into Saudi Arabia and other Persian Gulf states, but that the United States had little capability to defend the region. Furthermore, it was determined that a prolonged war in the region would induce much higher oil prices and threaten the fragile recovery of the world economy, which was just beginning to gain momentum. The full declassified presentation can be seen here:  The conclusions were threefold: first, oil stocks needed to be increased among members of the International Energy Agency and, if necessary, released early if the oil market was disrupted; second, the United States needed to beef up the security of friendly Arab states in the region; and third, an embargo should be placed on sales of military equipment to Iran and Iraq.
The plan was implemented and became the basis for US preparedness to respond to the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait in Within hours of the invasion, Kuwait and US delegations requested a meeting of the UN Security Council , which passed Resolution , condemning the invasion and demanding a withdrawal of Iraqi troops. On 6 August, Resolution placed economic sanctions on Iraq. It said the "use of measures commensurate to the specific circumstances as may be necessary The US administration had at first been indecisive with an "undertone Once persuaded, US officials insisted on a total Iraqi pullout from Kuwait, without any linkage to other Middle Eastern problems, accepting the British view that any concessions would strengthen Iraqi influence in the region for years to come.
On 12 August , Saddam "propose[d] that all cases of occupation, and those cases that have been portrayed as occupation, in the region, be resolved simultaneously". Specifically, he called for Israel to withdraw from occupied territories in Palestine, Syria, and Lebanon, Syria to withdraw from Lebanon, and "mutual withdrawals by Iraq and Iran and arrangement for the situation in Kuwait. Additionally, he requested an "immediate freeze of all boycott and siege decisions" and a general normalization of relations with Iraq. On 23 August, Saddam appeared on state television with Western hostages to whom he had refused exit visas. In the video, he asks a young British boy, Stuart Lockwood, whether he is getting his milk, and goes on to say, through his interpreter, "We hope your presence as guests here will not be for too long.
Your presence here, and in other places, is meant to prevent the scourge of war. The official communicated to the White House that Iraq would "withdraw from Kuwait and allow foreigners to leave" provided that the UN lifted sanctions, allowed "guaranteed access to the Persian Gulf through the Kuwaiti islands of Bubiyan and Warbah", and allowed Iraq to "gain full control of the Rumaila oil field that extends slightly into Kuwaiti territory". The proposal also "include[d] offers to negotiate an oil agreement with the United States 'satisfactory to both nations' national security interests,' develop a joint plan 'to alleviate Iraq's economical and financial problems' and 'jointly work on the stability of the gulf. On 29 November , the Security Council passed Resolution , which gave Iraq until 15 January to withdraw from Kuwait, and empowered states to use "all necessary means" to force Iraq out of Kuwait after the deadline.
In December , Iraq made a proposal to withdraw from Kuwait provided that foreign troops left the region and that an agreement was reached regarding the Palestinian problem and the dismantlement of both Israel's and Iraq's weapons of mass destruction. The White House rejected the proposal. Ultimately, the US and UK stuck to their position that there would be no negotiations until Iraq withdrew from Kuwait and that they should not grant Iraq concessions, lest they give the impression that Iraq benefited from its military campaign. On 14 January , France proposed that the UN Security Council call for "a rapid and massive withdrawal" from Kuwait along with a statement to Iraq that Council members would bring their "active contribution" to a settlement of the region's other problems, "in particular, of the Arab—Israeli conflict and in particular to the Palestinian problem by convening, at an appropriate moment, an international conference" to assure "the security, stability and development of this region of the world.
One of the West's main concerns was the significant threat Iraq posed to Saudi Arabia. Following Kuwait's conquest, the Iraqi Army was within easy striking distance of Saudi oil fields. Control of these fields, along with Kuwaiti and Iraqi reserves, would have given Saddam control over the majority of the world's oil reserves. Iraq also had a number of grievances with Saudi Arabia. The Saudis had lent Iraq some 26 billion dollars during its war with Iran.
The Saudis had backed Iraq in that war, as they feared the influence of Shia Iran's Islamic revolution on its own Shia minority. After the war, Saddam felt he should not have to repay the loans due to the help he had given the Saudis by fighting Iran. Soon after his conquest of Kuwait, Saddam began verbally attacking the Saudis. He argued that the US-supported Saudi state was an illegitimate and unworthy guardian of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina.
He combined the language of the Islamist groups that had recently fought in Afghanistan with the rhetoric Iran had long used to attack the Saudis. Bush quickly announced that the US would launch a "wholly defensive" mission to prevent Iraq from invading Saudi Arabia, under the codename Operation Desert Shield. The operation began on 7 August , when US troops were sent to Saudi Arabia, due also to the request of its monarch, King Fahd , who had earlier called for US military assistance.
Military buildup continued from there, eventually reaching , troops, twice the number used in the invasion of Iraq. Much of the material was airlifted or carried to the staging areas via fast sealift ships , allowing a quick buildup. As part of the buildup, amphibious exercises were carried out in the Gulf, including Operation Imminent Thunder, which involved the USS Midway and 15 other ships, 1, aircraft, and a thousand Marines. Resolution , passed on 29 November gave Iraq a withdrawal deadline until 15 January , and authorized "all necessary means to uphold and implement Resolution ", and a diplomatic formulation authorizing the use of force if Iraq failed to comply.
The first stop was Saudi Arabia, which a month before had already granted permission to the United States to use its facilities. However, Baker believed that Saudi Arabia should assume some of the cost of the military efforts to defend it. When Baker asked King Fahd for 15 billion dollars, the King readily agreed, with the promise that Baker ask Kuwait for the same amount. The next day, 7 September, he did just that, and the Emir of Kuwait , displaced in a Sheraton hotel outside his invaded country, easily agreed.
Baker then moved to enter talks with Egypt, whose leadership he considered "the moderate voice of the Middle East". President Mubarak of Egypt was furious with Saddam for his invasion of Kuwait, and for the fact that Saddam had assured Mubarak that an invasion was not his intention. Assad had a deep personal enmity towards Saddam, which was defined by the fact that "Saddam had been trying to kill him [Assad] for years. This was a vital step in ensuring Arab states were represented in the coalition. In exchange, Washington gave Syrian dictator President Hafez al-Assad the green light to wipe out forces opposing Syria's rule in Lebanon and arranged for weapons valued at a billion dollars to be provided to Syria, mostly through Gulf states.
Baker flew to Rome for a brief visit with the Italians in which he was promised the use of some military equipment, before journeying to Germany to meet with American ally Chancellor Kohl. Although Germany's constitution which was brokered essentially by the United States prohibited military involvement in outside nations, Kohl committed a two billion dollar contribution to the coalition's war effort, as well as further economic and military support of coalition ally Turkey, and the transportation of Egyptian soldiers and ships to the Persian Gulf. The Soviet Union condemned Baghdad's aggression against Kuwait, but did not support the United States and allied intervention in Iraq and tried to avert it.
Many of the coalition countries were reluctant to commit military forces. Some felt that the war was an internal Arab affair or did not want to increase US influence in the Middle East. In the end, however, many nations were persuaded by Iraq's belligerence towards other Arab states, offers of economic aid or debt forgiveness, and threats to withhold aid. The US and the UN gave several public justifications for involvement in the conflict, the most prominent being the Iraqi violation of Kuwaiti territorial integrity. In addition, the US moved to support its ally Saudi Arabia, whose importance in the region, and as a key supplier of oil, made it of considerable geopolitical importance. During a speech in a special joint session of the US Congress given on 11 September , US President George Bush summed up the reasons with the following remarks: "Within three days, , Iraqi troops with tanks had poured into Kuwait and moved south to threaten Saudi Arabia.
It was then that I decided to act to check that aggression. The Pentagon stated that satellite photos showing a buildup of Iraqi forces along the border were this information's source, but this was later alleged to be false. A reporter for the St. Petersburg Times acquired two commercial Soviet satellite images made at the time, which showed nothing but empty desert. Other justifications for foreign involvement included Iraq's history of human rights abuses under Saddam.
Iraq was also known to possess biological weapons and chemical weapons , which Saddam had used against Iranian troops during the Iran—Iraq War and against his own country's Kurdish population in the Al-Anfal campaign. Iraq was also known to have a nuclear weapons program, but the report about it from January was partially declassified by the CIA on 26 May Although the Iraqi military committed human rights abuses during the invasion, the alleged incidents that received the most publicity in the US were fabrications of the public relations firm hired by the government of Kuwait to persuade Americans to support military intervention.
Among many other means of influencing US opinion, such as distributing books on Iraqi atrocities to US soldiers deployed in the region, "Free Kuwait" T-shirts and speakers to college campuses, and dozens of video news releases to television stations, the firm arranged for an appearance before a group of members of the US Congress in which a young woman identifying herself as a nurse working in the Kuwait City hospital described Iraqi soldiers pulling babies out of incubators and letting them die on the floor. The story helped tip both the public and Congress towards a war with Iraq: six Congressmen said the testimony was enough for them to support military action against Iraq and seven Senators referenced the testimony in debate.
The Senate supported the military actions in a 52—47 vote. However, a year after the war, this allegation was revealed to be a fabrication. The young woman who had testified was found to be a member of Kuwait's royal family and the daughter of Kuwait's ambassador to the US. This prompted a reexamination by Amnesty International , which had originally promoted an account alleging even greater numbers of babies torn from incubators than the original fake testimony. After finding no evidence to support it, the organization issued a retraction.
President Bush then repeated the incubator allegations on television. In reality, the Iraqi Army did commit various well-documented crimes during its occupation of Kuwait, such as the summary execution without trial of three brothers, after which their bodies were stacked and left to decay in a public street. The Gulf War began with an extensive aerial bombing campaign on 16 January For 42 consecutive days and nights, the coalition forces subjected Iraq to one of the most intensive air bombardments in military history. The coalition flew over , sorties , dropping 88, tonnes of bombs,  which widely destroyed military and civilian infrastructure. A day after the deadline set in Resolution , the coalition launched a massive air campaign, which began the general offensive codenamed Operation Desert Storm.
The priority was the destruction of Iraq's Air Force and anti-aircraft facilities. The next targets were command and communication facilities. Saddam Hussein had closely micromanaged Iraqi forces in the Iran—Iraq War, and initiative at lower levels was discouraged. Coalition planners hoped that Iraqi resistance would quickly collapse if deprived of command and control. The air campaign's third and largest phase targeted military targets throughout Iraq and Kuwait: Scud missile launchers, weapons research facilities, and naval forces. About a third of the coalition's air power was devoted to attacking Scuds, some of which were on trucks and therefore difficult to locate.
US and British special operations forces had been covertly inserted into western Iraq to aid in the search for and destruction of Scuds. Iraqi anti-aircraft defenses, including man-portable air-defense systems , were surprisingly ineffective against enemy aircraft, and the coalition suffered only 75 aircraft losses in over , sorties, 44 due to Iraqi action. Two of these losses are the result of aircraft colliding with the ground while evading Iraqi ground-fired weapons.
Iraq's government made no secret that it would attack if invaded. Foreign Minister, if war starts Five hours after the first attacks, Iraq's state radio broadcast declared that "The dawn of victory nears as this great showdown begins. These missile attacks were to continue throughout the war. Iraq fired 88 Scud missiles during the war's seven weeks. Iraq hoped to provoke a military response from Israel. The Iraqi government hoped that many Arab states would withdraw from the Coalition, as they would be reluctant to fight alongside Israel.
Israel prepared to militarily retaliate, as its policy for the previous 40 years had always been retaliation. However, President Bush pressured Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Shamir not to retaliate and withdraw Israeli jets, fearing that if Israel attacked Iraq, the other Arab nations would either desert the coalition or join Iraq. It was also feared that if Israel used Syrian or Jordanian airspace to attack Iraq, they would intervene in the war on Iraq's side or attack Israel. The coalition promised to deploy Patriot missiles to defend Israel if it refrained from responding to the Scud attacks. The Scud missiles targeting Israel were relatively ineffective, as firing at extreme range resulted in a dramatic reduction in accuracy and payload.
According to the Jewish Virtual Library , Iraqi attacks killed 74 Israelis: two directly and the rest from suffocation and heart attacks. As a result, Israel's government issued gas masks to its citizens. When the first Iraqi missiles hit Israel, some people injected themselves with an antidote for nerve gas. It has been suggested that the sturdy construction techniques used in Israeli cities, coupled with the fact that Scuds were only launched at night, played an important role in limiting the number of casualties from Scud attacks. In response to the threat of Scuds on Israel, the US rapidly sent a Patriot missile air defense artillery battalion to Israel along with two batteries of MIM Patriot missiles for the protection of civilians. The Dutch Defense Ministry later stated that the military use of the Patriot missile system was largely ineffective, but its psychological value for the affected populations was high.
Coalition air forces were also extensively exercised in "Scud hunts" in the Iraqi desert, trying to locate the camouflaged trucks before they fired their missiles at Israel or Saudi Arabia. On the ground, special operations forces also infiltrated Iraq, tasked with locating and destroying Scuds - including the ill-fated Bravo Two Zero patrol of the SAS. Once special operations were combined with air patrols, the number of attacks fell sharply, then increased slightly as Iraqi forces adjusted to coalition tactics. As the Scud attacks continued, the Israelis grew increasingly impatient, and considered taking unilateral military action against Iraq. On 22 January , a Scud missile hit the Israeli city of Ramat Gan , after two coalition Patriots failed to intercept it. Three elderly people suffered fatal heart attacks, another 96 people were injured, and 20 apartment buildings were damaged.
At one point, Israeli commandos boarded helicopters prepared to fly into Iraq, but the mission was called off after a phone call from US Defense Secretary Dick Cheney, reporting on the extent of coalition efforts to destroy Scuds and emphasizing that Israeli intervention could endanger US forces. In addition to the attacks on Israel, 47 Scud missiles were fired into Saudi Arabia, and one missile was fired at Bahrain and another at Qatar. The missiles were fired at both military and civilian targets. One Saudi civilian was killed, and 78 others were injured. No casualties were reported in Bahrain or Qatar. The Saudi government issued all its citizens and expatriates with gas masks in the event of Iraq using missiles with warheads containing chemical weapons.
On 29 January, Iraqi forces attacked and occupied the lightly defended Saudi city of Khafji with tanks and infantry. Both sides suffered casualties, although Iraqi forces sustained substantially more dead and captured than the allied forces. Eleven Americans were killed in two separate friendly fire incidents, an additional 14 US airmen were killed when their AC gunship was shot down by an Iraqi surface-to-air missile,  and two US soldiers were captured during the battle. Saudi and Qatari forces had a total of 18 dead. Iraqi forces in Khafji had 60— dead and captured. The Battle of Khafji was an example of how air power could single-handedly hinder the advance of enemy ground forces. Upon learning of Iraqi troop movements, coalition aircraft were diverted to attack an advancing column consisting of two armored divisions in battalion-sized units.
Precision stand-off attacks were conducted during the night and through to the next day. Iraqi vehicle losses included tanks, armored personnel carriers, and 89 mobile artillery pieces. Some crews simply abandoned their vehicles upon realizing that they could be destroyed by guided bombs, stopping the divisions from massing for an organized attack on the town. One Iraqi soldier, who had fought in the Iran—Iraq War, remarked that his brigade "had sustained more punishment from allied airpower in 30 minutes at Khafji than in eight years of fighting against Iran. Task Force 1—41 was the first coalition force to breach the Saudi Arabian border on 15 February , and to conduct ground combat operations in Iraq engaging in direct and indirect fire fights with the enemy on 17 February This joint effort would become known as Task Force Iron.
On 15 February 4th Battalion of the 3rd Field Artillery Regiment fired on a trailer and a few trucks in the Iraqi sector observing American forces. They were engaged with artillery fire from 4—3 FA. For the next hour the Task Force fought several small battles with Iraqi reconnaissance units. The rest of the formation was destroyed or driven away by artillery fire from 4—3 FA.
Task Force Infantry was the first coalition force to breach the Saudi Arabian border on 15 February and conduct ground combat operations in Iraq engaging in direct and indirect fire fights with the enemy on 17 February Around guns from multiple nations participated in the artillery barrage. Over 14, rounds were fired during these missions. By the end of these raids Iraqi artillery assets had all but ceased to exist. One Iraqi unit that was totally destroyed during the preparation was the Iraqi 48th Infantry Division Artillery Group.
On 24 February the 1st Cavalry Division conducted a couple artillery missions against Iraqi artillery units. Task Force Infantry was given the task of breaching Iraq's initial defensive positions along the Iraq—Saudi Arabia border. These defensive positions were occupied by a brigade-sized element. A series of battles unfolded resulting in heavy Iraqi casualties and the Iraqis being removed from their defensive positions with many becoming prisoners of war. Some escaped to be killed or captured by other coalition forces. The 1st Infantry Division's Task Force Infantry cleared four lanes simultaneously through an enemy fortified trench system while inflicting heavy casualties on Iraqi forces.
The ground campaign consisted of three or possibly four of the largest tank battles in American military history. The US 3rd Armored Division destroyed approximately enemy combat vehicles during this particular encounter with Iraqi forces. US decoy attacks by air attacks and naval gunfire the night before Kuwait's liberation were designed to make the Iraqis believe the main coalition ground attack would focus on central Kuwait. For months, American units in Saudi Arabia had been under almost constant Iraqi artillery fire, as well as threats from Scud missiles and chemical attacks.
They encountered trenches, barbed wire, and minefields. However, these positions were poorly defended, and were overrun in the first few hours. Several tank battles took place, but otherwise coalition troops encountered minimal resistance, as most Iraqi troops surrendered. The general pattern was that the Iraqis would put up a short fight before surrendering. However, Iraqi air defenses shot down nine US aircraft. Meanwhile, forces from Arab states advanced into Kuwait from the east, encountering little resistance and suffering few casualties. Despite the successes of coalition forces, it was feared that the Iraqi Republican Guard would escape into Iraq before it could be destroyed. It was decided to send British armored forces into Kuwait 15 hours ahead of schedule, and to send US forces after the Republican Guard.
The coalition advance was preceded by a heavy artillery and rocket barrage, after which , troops and 1, tanks began their advance. Iraqi forces in Kuwait counterattacked against US troops, acting on a direct order from Saddam Hussein himself. Despite the intense combat, the Americans repulsed the Iraqis and continued to advance towards Kuwait City. Kuwaiti forces were tasked with liberating the city. Iraqi troops offered only light resistance. The Kuwaitis quickly liberated the city despite losing one soldier and having one plane shot down. However, an Iraqi unit at Kuwait International Airport appeared not to have received the message and fiercely resisted. US Marines had to fight for hours before securing the airport, after which Kuwait was declared secure. After four days of fighting, Iraqi forces were expelled from Kuwait.
As part of a scorched earth policy, they set fire to nearly oil wells and placed land mines around the wells to make extinguishing the fires more difficult. The war's ground phase was officially designated Operation Desert Saber. These eight-man patrols landed behind Iraqi lines to gather intelligence on the movements of Scud mobile missile launchers, which could not be detected from the air, as they were hidden under bridges and camouflage netting during the day. The operations were designed to prevent any possible Israeli intervention.
Due to lack of sufficient ground cover to carry out their assignment, One Zero and Three Zero abandoned their operations, while Two Zero remained, and was later compromised, with only Sergeant Chris Ryan escaping to Syria. Elements of the 2nd Brigade, 1st Battalion 5th Cavalry of the 1st Cavalry Division of the US Army performed a direct attack into Iraq on 15 February , followed by one in force on 20 February that led directly through seven Iraqi divisions which were caught off guard. It was a feint attack, designed to make the Iraqis think that a coalition invasion would take place from the south.
The Iraqis fiercely resisted, and the Americans eventually withdrew as planned back into the Wadi Al-Batin. Three US soldiers were killed and nine wounded, with one M2 Bradley IFV turret destroyed, but they had taken 40 prisoners and destroyed five tanks, and successfully deceived the Iraqis. On 22 February , Iraq agreed to a Soviet-proposed ceasefire agreement. The agreement called for Iraq to withdraw troops to pre-invasion positions within six weeks following a total ceasefire, and called for monitoring of the ceasefire and withdrawal to be overseen by the UN Security Council. The coalition rejected the proposal, but said that retreating Iraqi forces would not be attacked, [ citation needed ] and gave 24 hours for Iraq to withdraw its forces.
On 23 February, fighting resulted in the capture of Iraqi soldiers. On 24 February, British and American armored forces crossed the Iraq—Kuwait border and entered Iraq in large numbers, taking hundreds of prisoners. Iraqi resistance was light, and four Americans were killed. This movement's left flank was protected by the French Division Daguet. The st Airborne Division conducted a combat air assault into enemy territory. The French force quickly overcame Iraq's 45th Infantry Division, suffering light casualties and taking a large number of prisoners, and took up blocking positions to prevent an Iraqi counterattack on the coalition's flank.
The movement's right flank was protected by the United Kingdom's 1st Armoured Division. Once the allies had penetrated deep into Iraqi territory, they turned eastward, launching a flank attack against the elite Republican Guard before it could escape. The Iraqis resisted fiercely from dug-in positions and stationary vehicles, and even mounted armored charges. Unlike many previous engagements, the destruction of the first Iraqi tanks did not result in a mass surrender. The Iraqis suffered massive losses and lost dozens of tanks and vehicles, while US casualties were comparatively low, with a single Bradley knocked out. Coalition forces pressed another 10 km into Iraqi territory, and captured their objective within three hours.
They took prisoners and inflicted heavy losses, defeating Iraq's 26th Infantry Division. A US soldier was killed by an Iraqi land mine, another five by friendly fire, and 30 wounded during the battle. In nearly two days of some of the war's most intense fighting, the British destroyed 40 enemy tanks and captured a division commander. Meanwhile, US forces attacked the village of Al Busayyah , meeting fierce resistance. The US force destroyed military hardware and took prisoners, while suffering no casualties. The missile attack killed 28 US military personnel. The coalition's advance was much swifter than US generals had expected. On 26 February, Iraqi troops began retreating from Kuwait, after they had set of its oil wells on fire.
A long convoy of retreating Iraqi troops formed along the main Iraq—Kuwait highway. Although they were retreating, this convoy was bombed so extensively by coalition air forces that it came to be known as the Highway of Death. Thousands of Iraqi troops were killed. American, British, and French forces continued to pursue retreating Iraqi forces over the border and back into Iraq, eventually moving to within km mi of Baghdad, before withdrawing back to Iraq's border with Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.
One hundred hours after the ground campaign started, on 28 February, President Bush declared a ceasefire, and he also declared that Kuwait had been liberated. In coalition-occupied Iraqi territory, a peace conference was held where a ceasefire agreement was negotiated and signed by both sides. At the conference, Iraq was authorized to fly armed helicopters on their side of the temporary border, ostensibly for government transit due to the damage done to civilian infrastructure. Soon after, these helicopters and much of Iraq's military were used to fight an uprising in the south.
The Arabic service of the Voice of America supported the uprising by stating that the rebellion was well supported, and that they would soon be liberated from Saddam. However, when no US support came, Iraqi generals remained loyal to Saddam and brutally crushed the Kurdish uprising. These events later resulted in no-fly zones being established in northern and southern Iraq. In Kuwait, the Emir was restored, and suspected Iraqi collaborators were repressed. Eventually, over , people were expelled from the country, including a large number of Palestinians , because of PLO support of Saddam.
Yasser Arafat didn't apologize for his support of Iraq, but after his death, the Fatah under Mahmoud Abbas ' authority formally apologized in There was some criticism of the Bush administration, as they chose to allow Saddam to remain in power instead of pushing on to capture Baghdad and overthrowing his government. In their co-written book, A World Transformed , Bush and Brent Scowcroft argued that such a course would have fractured the alliance, and would have had many unnecessary political and human costs associated with it. I would guess if we had gone in there, we would still have forces in Baghdad today.
We'd be running the country. We would not have been able to get everybody out and bring everybody home. And the final point that I think needs to be made is this question of casualties. I don't think you could have done all of that without significant additional US casualties, and while everybody was tremendously impressed with the low cost of the conflict, for the Americans who were killed in action and for their families, it wasn't a cheap war. And the question in my mind is, how many additional American casualties is Saddam [Hussein] worth?
And the answer is, not that damned many. So, I think we got it right, both when we decided to expel him from Kuwait, but also when the President made the decision that we'd achieved our objectives and we were not going to go get bogged down in the problems of trying to take over and govern Iraq. Kuwaiti democracy advocates had been calling for restoration of Parliament that the Emir had suspended in Germany and Japan provided financial assistance  and donated military hardware, although they did not send direct military assistance. This later became known as checkbook diplomacy. In addition, medical teams were deployed aboard a US hospital ship , and a naval clearance diving team took part in de-mining Kuwait's port facilities following the end of combat operations.
Australian forces experienced a number of incidents in the first number of weeks of the Desert Storm Campaign including the detection of significant air threats from Iraq as a part of the outer perimeter of Battle Force Zulu; the detection of free sea floating mines and assistance to the aircraft carrier USS Midway. The Australians played a significant role in enforcing the sanctions put in place against Iraq following Kuwait's invasion.
Argentina was the only Latin American country to participate in the Gulf War. Canada was one of the first countries to condemn Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, and it quickly agreed to join the US-led coalition. A fourth ship, HMCS Huron , arrived in-theater after hostilities had ceased and was the first allied ship to visit Kuwait. Following the UN-authorized use of force against Iraq, the Canadian Forces deployed a CF Hornet and CH Sea King squadron with support personnel, as well as a field hospital to deal with casualties from the ground war.
When the air war began, the CFs were integrated into the coalition force and were tasked with providing air cover and attacking ground targets. This was the first time since the Korean War that Canada's military had participated in offensive combat operations. The only CF Hornet to record an official victory during the conflict was an aircraft involved in the beginning of the Battle of Bubiyan against the Iraqi Navy. The second largest European contingent was from France, which committed 18, troops. France also deployed several combat aircraft and naval units. The Italian Air Force recorded the loss of a single aircraft in the gulf war. The use of Italian aircraft as part of the Desert Storm operation represented the first operational employment in combat missions of Italian Air Force aircraft after the end of World War II.
The United Kingdom committed the largest contingent of any European state that participated in the war's combat operations. Operation Granby was the code name for the operations in the Persian Gulf. The United Kingdom played a major role in the Battle of Norfolk where its forces destroyed over Iraqi tanks and a large quantity of other vehicles. Several SAS squadrons were deployed.
A British Challenger 1 achieved the longest range confirmed tank kill of the war, destroying an Iraqi tank with an armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding-sabot APFSDS round fired over 4, metres 2. Over 1, Kuwaiti civilians were killed by Iraqis. The increased importance of air attacks from both coalition warplanes and cruise missiles led to controversy over the number of civilian deaths caused during Desert Storm's initial stages.
Within Desert Storm's first 24 hours, more than 1, sorties were flown, many against targets in Baghdad. The city was the target of heavy bombing, as it was the seat of power for Saddam and the Iraqi forces' command and control. This ultimately led to civilian casualties. In one noted incident, two USAF stealth planes bombed a bunker in Amiriyah , causing the deaths of Iraqi civilians in the shelter. Saddam's government gave high civilian casualty to draw support from Islamic countries. The Iraqi government claimed that 2, civilians died during the air campaign. A Harvard University study predicted tens of thousands of additional Iraqi civilian deaths by the end of due to the "public health catastrophe" caused by the destruction of the country's electrical generating capacity.
The US government refused to release its own study of the effects of the Iraqi public health crisis. An investigation by Beth Osborne Daponte estimated total civilian fatalities at about 3, from bombing, and some , from the war's other effects. A United Nations report in March described the effect on Iraq of the US-led bombing campaign as "near apocalyptic," bringing back Iraq to the "pre-industrial age.
Some estimate that Iraq sustained between 20, and 35, fatalities. According to the Project on Defense Alternatives study, between 20, and 26, Iraqi military personnel were killed in the conflict while 75, others were wounded. According to Kanan Makiya , "For the Iraqi people, the cost of enforcing the will of the United Nations has been grotesque. Fleeing soldiers were bombed with a device known as a 'fuel-air explosive. The US Department of Defense reports that US forces suffered battle-related deaths 35 to friendly fire  , with one pilot listed as MIA his remains were found and identified in August A further Americans died in non-combat accidents.
In all, coalition troops were killed by Iraqi fire during the war, of whom were American, out of coalition deaths. Another 44 soldiers were killed and 57 wounded by friendly fire. The number of coalition wounded in combat was , including Americans. This number was much lower than expected. Among the American combat dead were four female soldiers. While the death toll among coalition forces engaging Iraqi combatants was very low, a substantial number of deaths were caused by accidental attacks from other Allied units. Many returning coalition soldiers reported illnesses following their action in the war, a phenomenon known as Gulf War syndrome or Gulf War illness. Common symptoms reported are chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, and gastrointestinal disorder.
Researchers found that infants born to male veterans of the war had higher rates of two types of heart valve defects. Some children born after the war to Gulf War veterans had a certain kidney defect that was not found in Gulf War veterans' children born before the war. Researchers have said that they did not have enough information to link birth defects with exposure to toxic substances. This publication, called the Riegle Report , summarized testimony this committee had received establishing that the US had in the s supplied Saddam Hussein with chemical and biological warfare technology, that Saddam had used such chemical weapons against Iran and his own native Kurds, and possibly against US soldiers as well, plausibly contributing to the Gulf War Syndrome.
The US military used depleted uranium in tank kinetic energy penetrators and 20—30 mm cannon ordnance. Significant controversy regarding the long term safety of depleted uranium exists, including claims of pyrophoric , genotoxic , and teratogenic heavy metal effects. Many have cited its use during the war as a contributing factor to a number of major health issues in veterans and in surrounding civilian populations, including in birth defects and child cancer rates. Scientific opinion on the risk is mixed. External exposure to radiation from depleted uranium is generally not a major concern because the alpha particles emitted by its isotopes travel only a few centimeters in air or can be stopped by a sheet of paper.
Also, the uranium that remains in depleted uranium emits only a small amount of low-energy gamma radiation. However, if allowed to enter the body, depleted uranium, like natural uranium, has the potential for both chemical and radiological toxicity with the two important target organs being the kidneys and the lungs. On the night of 26—27 February , some Iraqi forces began leaving Kuwait on the main highway north of Al Jahra in a column of some 1, vehicles. Bush decided that he would rather gamble on a violent and potentially unpopular ground war than risk the alternative: an imperfect settlement hammered out by the Soviets and Iraqis that world opinion might accept as tolerable.
This event was later called by the media "The Highway of Death. They'd already learned to scamper off into the desert when our aircraft started to attack. Nevertheless, some people back home wrongly chose to believe we were cruelly and unusually punishing our already whipped foes. By February 27, talk had turned toward terminating the hostilities. Kuwait was free. We were not interested in governing Iraq. So the question became "How do we stop the killing. Another incident during the war highlighted the question of large-scale Iraqi combat deaths. This was the " bulldozer assault", wherein two brigades from the US 1st Infantry Division Mechanized were faced with a large and complex trench network, as part of the heavily fortified "Saddam Hussein Line".
After some deliberation, they opted to use anti-mine plows mounted on tanks and combat earthmovers to simply plow over and bury alive the defending Iraqi soldiers. Not a single American was killed during the attack. Reporters were banned from witnessing the attack, near the neutral zone that touches the border between Saudi Arabia and Iraq. Anthony] Moreno said. A Palestinian exodus from Kuwait took place during and after the Gulf War. During the Gulf War, more than , Palestinians fled Kuwait during the Iraqi occupation of Kuwait due to harassment and intimidation by Iraqi security forces,  in addition to getting fired from work by Iraqi authority figures in Kuwait. The Palestinians who fled Kuwait were Jordanian citizens. Many of the targets were chosen only secondarily to contribute to the military defeat of Iraq Military planners hoped the bombing would amplify the economic and psychological impact of international sanctions on Iraqi society They deliberately did great harm to Iraq's ability to support itself as an industrial society Iraqis understood the legitimacy of a military action to drive their army from Kuwait, but they have had difficulty comprehending the Allied rationale for using air power to systematically destroy or cripple Iraqi infrastructure and industry: electric power stations 92 percent of installed capacity destroyed , refineries 80 percent of production capacity , petrochemical complexes, telecommunications centers including telephone networks , bridges more than , roads, highways, railroads, hundreds of locomotives and boxcars full of goods, radio and television broadcasting stations, cement plants, and factories producing aluminum, textiles, electric cables, and medical supplies.
However, the UN subsequently spent billions rebuilding hospitals, schools, and water purification facilities throughout the country. During the conflict, coalition aircrew shot down over Iraq were displayed as prisoners of war on TV, most with visible signs of abuse. Iraqi secret police broke his nose, dislocated his shoulder and punctured his eardrum. Only one, Chris Ryan , evaded capture while the group's other surviving members were violently tortured. Since the war, the US has had a continued presence of 5, troops stationed in Saudi Arabia — a figure that rose to 10, during the conflict in Iraq. Since Saudi Arabia houses Mecca and Medina, Islam's holiest sites, many Muslims were upset at the permanent military presence.
The continued presence of US troops in Saudi Arabia after the war was one of the stated motivations behind the 11 September terrorist attacks ,  the Khobar Towers bombing , and the date chosen for the US embassy bombings 7 August , which was eight years to the day that US troops were sent to Saudi Arabia. In a December interview with Rahimullah Yusufzai , bin Laden said he felt that Americans were "too near to Mecca" and considered this a provocation to the entire Islamic world. On 6 August , after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait , the UN Security Council adopted Resolution which imposed economic sanctions on Iraq, providing for a full trade embargo , excluding medical supplies, food and other items of humanitarian necessity, these to be determined by the council's sanctions committee.
From until , the effects of government policy and sanctions regime led to hyperinflation , widespread poverty and malnutrition. During the late s, the UN considered relaxing the sanctions imposed because of the hardships suffered by ordinary Iraqis. Studies dispute the number of people who died in south and central Iraq during the years of the sanctions. The draining of the Qurna Marshes was an irrigation project in Iraq during and immediately after the war, to drain a large area of marshes in the Tigris—Euphrates river system.
Formerly covering an area of around 3, square kilometers, the large complex of wetlands were nearly emptied of water, and the local Shi'ite population relocated, following the war and uprisings. The draining of the Qurna Marshes also called The Draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes occurred in Iraq and to a smaller degree in Iran between the s and s to clear large areas of the marshes in the Tigris-Euphrates river system. The marshes are typically divided into three main sub-marshes, the Hawizeh , Central, and Hammar Marshes and all three were drained at different times for different reasons. Initial draining of the Central Marshes was intended to reclaim land for agriculture but later all three marshes would become a tool of war and revenge.
Many international organizations such as the UN Human Rights Commission , the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq , the Wetlands International , and Middle East Watch have described the project as a political attempt to force the Marsh Arabs out of the area through water diversion tactics. On 23 January, Iraq dumped million US gallons 1,, m 3 of crude oil into the Persian Gulf,  causing the largest offshore oil spill in history at that time. The Kuwaiti oil fires were caused by the Iraqi military setting fire to oil wells as part of a scorched earth policy while retreating from Kuwait in after conquering the country but being driven out by coalition forces. The fires started in January and February , and the last one was extinguished by November.
The resulting fires burned uncontrollably because of the dangers of sending in firefighting crews. Land mines had been placed in areas around the oil wells, and a military cleaning of the areas was necessary before the fires could be put out. Somewhere around 6 million barrels , m 3 of oil were lost each day. Apart from the impact on Arab States of the Persian Gulf , the resulting economic disruptions after the crisis affected many states. The Overseas Development Institute ODI undertook a study in to assess the effects on developing states and the international community's response. A briefing paper finalized on the day that the conflict ended draws on their findings which had two main conclusions: Many developing states were severely affected and while there has been a considerable response to the crisis, the distribution of assistance was highly selective.
The ODI factored in elements of "cost" which included oil imports, remittance flows, re-settlement costs, loss of export earnings and tourism. International response to the crisis on developing states came with the channeling of aid through The Gulf Crisis Financial Co-ordination Group. The World Bank responded by speeding up the disbursement of existing project and adjustment loans. The war was heavily televised. For the first time, people all over the world watched live pictures of missiles hitting their targets and fighters departing from aircraft carriers. Allied forces were keen to demonstrate their weapons' accuracy. But, moments later, Shepard returned as flashes of light were seen on the horizon and tracer fire was heard on the ground.
Rather, after the report was finished, announced unconfirmed reports of flashes in Baghdad and heavy air traffic at bases in Saudi Arabia. Moments later, Brokaw announced to his viewers that the air attack had begun. It was CNN whose coverage gained the most popularity and its wartime coverage is often cited as one of the landmark events in the network's history, ultimately leading to the establishment of CNN International. The network had previously convinced the Iraqi government to allow installation of a permanent audio circuit in their makeshift bureau. When the telephones of all the other Western TV correspondents went dead during the bombing, CNN was the only service able to provide live reporting.
After the initial bombing, Arnett remained behind and was, for a time, the only American TV correspondent reporting from Iraq. The station was short lived, ending shortly after President Bush declared the ceasefire and Kuwait's liberation. However, it paved the way for the later introduction of Radio Five Live. They were responsible for a report which included an "infamous cruise missile that travelled down a street and turned left at a traffic light. Newspapers all over the world also covered the war and Time magazine published a special issue dated 28 January , the headline "War in the Gulf" emblazoned on the cover over a picture of Baghdad taken as the war began.
US policy regarding media freedom was much more restrictive than in the Vietnam War. The policy had been spelled out in a Pentagon document entitled Annex Foxtrot. Most of the press information came from briefings organized by the military. Only selected journalists were allowed to visit the front lines or conduct interviews with soldiers. Those visits were always conducted in the presence of officers, and were subject to both prior approval by the military and censorship afterward. This was ostensibly to protect sensitive information from being revealed to Iraq. This policy was heavily influenced by the military's experience with the Vietnam War, in which public opposition within the US grew throughout the war's course.
It was not only the limitation of information in the Middle East; media were also restricting what was shown about the war with more graphic depictions like Ken Jarecke 's image of a burnt Iraqi soldier being pulled from the American AP wire whereas in Europe it was given extensive coverage. The war's coverage was new in its immediacy. About halfway through the war, Iraq's government decided to allow live satellite transmissions from the country by Western news organizations, and US journalists returned en masse to Baghdad. Throughout the war, footage of incoming missiles was broadcast almost immediately. A British crew from CBS News, David Green and Andy Thompson, equipped with satellite transmission equipment, traveled with the front line forces and, having transmitted live TV pictures of the fighting en route, arrived the day before the forces in Kuwait City, broadcasting live television from the city and covering the entrance of the Arab forces the next day.
Alternative media outlets provided views opposing the war. Deep Dish Television compiled segments from independent producers in the US and abroad, and produced a hour series that was distributed internationally, called The Gulf Crisis TV Project. News World Order  was the title of another program in the series; it focused on the media's complicity in promoting the war, as well as Americans' reactions to the media coverage. In San Francisco, Paper Tiger Television West produced a weekly cable television show with highlights of mass demonstrations, artists' actions, lectures, and protests against mainstream media coverage at newspaper offices and television stations.
Local media outlets in cities across the USA screened similar oppositional media. The following names have been used to describe the conflict itself: Gulf War and Persian Gulf War are the most common terms for the conflict used within western countries , though it may also be called the First Gulf War to distinguish it from the invasion of Iraq and the subsequent Iraq War. Most of the coalition states used various names for their operations and the war's operational phases. These are sometimes incorrectly used as the conflict's overall name, especially the US Desert Storm :.
Precision-guided munitions were heralded as key in allowing military strikes to be made with a minimum of civilian casualties compared to previous wars, although they were not used as often as more traditional, less accurate bombs. Specific buildings in downtown Baghdad could be bombed while journalists in their hotels watched cruise missiles fly by. Precision-guided munitions amounted to approximately 7. Other bombs included cluster bombs , which disperse numerous submunitions,  and daisy cutters , 15,pound bombs which can disintegrate everything within hundreds of yards. Global Positioning System GPS units were relatively new at the time and were important in enabling coalition units to easily navigate across the desert. Since military GPS receivers were not available for most troops, many used commercially available units.
To permit these to be used to best effect, the "selective availability" feature of the GPS system was turned off for the duration of Desert Storm, allowing these commercial receivers to provide the same precision as the military equipment. Both were used in command and control area of operations. These systems provided essential communications links between air, ground, and naval forces. It is one of several reasons coalition forces dominated the air war. American-made color photocopiers were used to produce some of Iraq's battle plans.
Some of the copiers contained concealed high-tech transmitters that revealed their positions to American electronic warfare aircraft , leading to more precise bombings. The role of Iraq's Scud missiles featured prominently in the war. Scud is a tactical ballistic missile that the Soviet Union developed and deployed among the forward deployed Soviet Army divisions in East Germany. Scud missiles utilize inertial guidance which operates for the duration that the engines operate. Iraq used Scud missiles, launching them into both Saudi Arabia and Israel. Some missiles caused extensive casualties, while others caused little damage. The US Patriot missile was used in combat for the first time.
There have also been numerous depictions in film including Jarhead , which is based on US Marine Anthony Swofford 's memoir of the same name. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from First Gulf War. This article is about the war in For other wars of that name, see Gulf War disambiguation. Coalition :. George H. Yeosock Walter E. William Kime Robert B. Persian Gulf Wars. Gulf War. Regional organisations. Algeria pro-Iraq pro-Syria. Splinter groups. Related topics. Arab nationalism Arab socialism Nasserism Pan-Arabism. Politics portal Socialism portal. This article is part of a series about. Transition Tenure Reagan administration first inauguration second inauguration Reagan assassination attempt Deregulation.
Presidential campaigns. See also: Nayirah testimony. Main article: Gulf War air campaign. Transcending cultural differences and customs is just a small step to achieve that. Online Dating Guide. No matter who you ask, you will get the same answer: dating nowadays is hard. For single expats in Germany, dating is even harder. Online Dating. In a perfect world, you and your soulmate would bump into each other on the streets of Germany, lock eyes, and fall madly in love the next second.
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