✪✪✪ Selective Draft Law Case Analysis

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Selective Draft Law Case Analysis



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How To Read, Understand and Summarise Legal Cases Quickly

I, too, will miss you and many other friends in Washington but I am grateful for the proximity of our two cities which will afford the opportunity for frequent visits when and if time permits. Whenever you are in Baltimore, please make it a point to visit me at City Hall. Finally, in January President John F. The FBI inquiry was a perfunctory exercise with little digging which vainly attempted to address two decades of allegations in less than two months, and of course some witnesses had lost their memories and others had died or otherwise disappeared. The developer later explained that the payments were legitimate loans to Mrs. The supposed repayments were made in cash rather than by check. The Piracci trial at which Mrs.

The FBI describes the ugly case in a January 30, memo as follows:. In addition, James H. Skip to content. Ladd provides: Supervisor Orrin H. This entry was posted in Uncategorized. Bookmark the permalink. It will burden her conscience in life, it will burden her soul in death; But oh! Socialist feminists tended to be more sympathetic to the need for abortion options for the poor, and indeed socialist feminist doctors, such as Marie Equi, Madeleine Pelletier, and William J. Robinson, themselves performed low-cost or free abortions for poor women.

The movement to liberalize abortion laws emerged in the s and '30s as part of rising feminist activism that had already resulted in victories in the area of birth control. Campaigners including Marie Stopes in England and Margaret Sanger in the US had succeeded in bringing the issue into the open, and birth control clinics were established which offered family planning advice and contraceptive methods to women in need. In , the Infant Life Preservation Act was passed in Britain, which amended the law Offences against the Person Act so that an abortion carried out in good faith, for the sole purpose of preserving the life of the mother, would not be an offence.

Stella Browne was a leading birth control campaigner, who increasingly began to venture into the more contentious issue of abortion in the s. Browne's beliefs were heavily influenced by the work of Havelock Ellis , Edward Carpenter and other sexologists. This would give women agency over their own circumstances and allow them to decide whether they wanted to be mothers or not. Another prominent feminist to influence abortion law was Emily Stowe. In the 19th century she was one of the first doctors to be tried for attempting an abortion procedure in Canada.

Other prominent feminists, including Frida Laski , Dora Russell , Joan Malleson and Janet Chance began to champion this cause — the cause broke dramatically into the mainstream in July when the British Medical Association council formed a committee to discuss making changes to the laws on abortion. The association promoted access to abortion in the United Kingdom and campaigned for the elimination of legal obstacles. The ALRA was very active between and sending speakers around the country to talk about Labour and Equal Citizenship and attempted, though most often unsuccessfully, to have letters and articles published in newspapers. In , Joan Malleson precipitated one of the most influential cases in British abortion law when she referred a pregnant fourteen-year-old rape victim to gynaecologist Aleck Bourne.

He performed an abortion, then illegal, and was put on trial on charges of procuring abortion. Bourne was eventually acquitted in Rex v. Bourne as his actions were "an example of disinterested conduct in consonance with the highest traditions of the profession". Finally, the Birkett Committee , established in by the British government "to inquire into the prevalence of abortion, and the law relating thereto", recommended a change to abortion laws two years later. The intervention of World War II meant that all plans were shelved. Another prominent figure in the reform of abortion laws was Dr.

Although born in Poland he made a name for himself in Canada, opening multiple illegal abortion clinics in Toronto, Ontario. Prior to , abortion was considered a crime for which the maximum punishment was life imprisonment for the doctor performing the abortion and two years imprisonment for the woman receiving the abortion. Abortion remained illegal until , when the Supreme Court of Canada overruled the criminal punishments for abortion.

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic was the first government to legalize abortion and make it available on request, often for no cost. From until the Soviet Union made abortion illegal except for medically recommended cases again, stemming largely from Joseph Stalin 's worries about population growth. Stalin wanted to encourage population growth, as well as place a stronger emphasis on the importance of the family unit to communism. In Britain, the Abortion Law Reform Association continued its campaigning after the War, and this, combined with broad social changes brought the issue of abortion back into the political arena in the s. On the grounds of reducing the amount of disease and death associated with illegal abortion, the Abortion Act allowed for legal abortion on a number of grounds, including to prevent grave permanent injury to the woman's physical or mental health , to avoid injury to the physical or mental health of the woman or her existing child ren if the pregnancy was still under 28 weeks, or if the child was likely to be severely physically or mentally handicapped.

The free provision of abortions was provided through the National Health Service. In America an abortion reform movement emerged in the s. In , the Society for Humane Abortion was formed, providing women with information on how to obtain and perform abortions. Some women's rights activist groups developed their own skills to provide abortions to women who could not obtain them elsewhere. As an example, in Chicago, a group known as " Jane " operated a floating abortion clinic throughout much of the s.

Women seeking the procedure would call a designated number and be given instructions on how to find "Jane". In the late s, a number of organizations were formed to mobilize opinion both against and for the legalization of abortion. The American Medical Association, the American Bar Association, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the California Medical Association, the California Bar Association, and numerous other groups announced support behind new laws that would protect doctors from criminal prosecution if they performed abortions under rigid hospital controls. In , Colorado became the first state to decriminalize a doctor performing an abortion in cases of rape, incest, or in which pregnancy would lead to permanent physical disability of the woman.

A bipartisan majority in the California legislature supported a new law introduced by Democratic state senator Anthony Beilenson , the "Therapeutic Abortion Act". Catholic clergy were strongly opposed but Catholic lay people were divided and non-Catholics strongly supported the proposal. Governor Ronald Reagan consulted with his father-in-law, a prominent surgeon who supported the law. The archbishop strongly opposed any legalization of abortion and he convinced Reagan to announce he would veto the proposed law since the draft allowed abortions in the case of birth defects. The legislature dropped that provision and Reagan signed the law, which decriminalized abortions when done to protect the health of the mother. In the first full year under the new law that were 5, abortions in California.

The numbers grew exponentially and stabilized at about , annually by the s. It was abortion-on-demand, as One out of every three pregnancies was ended by illegal abortion. The key factor was the sudden emergence of a woman's movement that introduced a very new idea—women had a basic right to control their bodies and could choose to have an abortion or not. Reagan by found his support among anti-abortion religious groups and said he was too new as governor to make a wise decision.

In , Hawaii became the first state to legalize abortions on the request of the woman, [] and New York repealed its law and allowed abortions up to the 24th week of pregnancy. Similar laws were soon passed in Alaska and Washington. A law in Washington, D. The court upheld the law, deeming that "health" meant "psychological and physical well-being", essentially allowing abortion in Washington, DC. By the end of , 13 states had a law similar to that of Colorado, while Mississippi allowed abortion in cases of rape or incest only and Alabama and Massachusetts allowed abortions only in cases where the woman's physical health was endangered.

The landmark judicial ruling of the Supreme Court in Roe v. Wade ruled that a Texas statute forbidding abortion except when necessary to save the life of the mother was unconstitutional. The immediate result was that all state laws to the contrary were null. The Court arrived at its decision by concluding that the issue of abortion and abortion rights falls under the right to privacy.

The Court held that a right to privacy existed and included the right to have an abortion. The court found that a mother had a right to abortion until viability, a point to be determined by the abortion doctor. After viability a woman can obtain an abortion for health reasons, which the Court defined broadly to include psychological well-being. From the s, and the spread of second-wave feminism , abortion and reproductive rights became unifying issues among various women's rights groups in Canada, the United States, the Netherlands, Britain, Norway, France, Germany, and Italy.

Although prototypes of the modern curette are referred to in ancient texts, the instrument which is used today was initially designed in France in , but was not applied specifically to a gynecological purpose until The 20th century saw improvements in abortion technology, increasing its safety, and reducing its side-effects. Vacuum devices, first described by the Scottish obstetrician James Young Simpson in the 19th century, allowed for the development of suction-aspiration abortion.

Bykov in , where the method was used during its period of liberal abortion laws from to The technology was also used in China and Japan before being introduced to Britain and the United States in the s. In , Lorraine Rothman and Carol Downer , founding members of the feminist self-help movement, invented the Del-Em, a safe, cheap suction device that made it possible for people with minimal training to perform early abortions called menstrual extraction. This resurgence is due to technological advances that permit early pregnancy detection as soon as a week after conception and a growing popular demand for safe, effective early abortion options, both surgical and medical.

An innovator in the development of early surgical abortion services is Jerry Edwards, a physician, who developed a protocol in which women are offered an abortion using a handheld vacuum syringe as soon as a positive pregnancy test is received. This protocol also allows the early detection of an ectopic pregnancy. Intact dilation and extraction was developed by Dr. James McMahon in It resembles a procedure used in the 19th century to save a woman's life in cases of obstructed labor, in which the fetal skull was first punctured with a perforator, then crushed and extracted with a forceps -like instrument, known as a cranioclast. In , researchers at Roussel Uclaf in France developed mifepristone , a chemical compound which works as an abortifacient by blocking hormone action.

It was first marketed in France under the trade name Mifegyne in At various times abortion has been banned or restricted in countries around the world. Multiple scholars have noticed that in many cases, this has caused women to seek dangerous, illegal abortions underground or inspired trips abroad for "reproductive tourism". But other authors have written that illegality has not always meant that abortions were unsafe. For example, in the U. In the early s, the Chinese government made abortion illegal, with punishments for those who received or performed illegal abortions written into the law. As the decade went on, however, the laws were relaxed with the intent of reducing the number of deaths and lifelong injuries women sustained due to illegal abortions as well as serving as a form of population control when used in conjunction with birth control.

India enforced the Indian Penal Code from to , criminalizing abortion and punishing both the practitioners and the women who sought out the procedure. Chandrasekhar notes, lower class women still find themselves at a greater risk of injury or death as a result of a botched abortion. Japan is known today worldwide for its acceptance of abortion. The Eugenics Protection Law of made abortion on demand legal up to twenty-two weeks' gestation so long as the woman's health was endangered; in , this law was extended to consider the risk the child's birth would place on a woman's economic welfare. In , the creation of the conservative right-wing nationalist political lobbying group called Seicho-no-Ie brought about a strong opposition to the abortion laws.

As a result of this decree, women in want of abortion turned to illegal procedures that caused the deaths of over 9, women and left unwanted children abandoned in orphanages. Abortion remained illegal until , when the decree was overturned. There was intense public debate throughout the s and s over legal abortion reform. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Christianity and Abortion. Official opposition. Philosophy and theology. See also. Main article: Judaism and abortion.

The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this section , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new section, as appropriate. April Learn how and when to remove this template message. See also: Abortion in China. See also: Abortion in India. See also: Abortion in Japan. See also: Abortion in Romania. Contraception and abortion in nineteenth-century America. ISBN OCLC Romanian Journal of Bioethics. Archived from the original PDF on Gynecology and Obstetrics PDF. Retrieved Potts, Malcolm ; Martha Campbell The Global Library of Women's Medicine. ISSN In Harold Rosen ed. Abortion in America: Medical, psychiatric, legal, anthropological, and religious considerations.

Boston, Massachusetts : Beacon Press. A Study of Abortion in Primitive Societies. International Universities Press. The Savage Wars of Peace. Basingstoke : Palgrave Macmillan. Archived from the original on June 29, Yale University. Josanpu Zasshi in Japanese. PMID Japanese Journal of Religious Studies. The New Zealand Medical Journal. March The American Journal of Nursing. JSTOR Plato in Twelve Volumes. Cambridge, Massachusetts : Harvard University Press. Robert , "abortion", in Hornblower, Simon; Spawforth, Anthony eds. Jeffrey; Deborah J. Medicina Antiqua.

Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Fant Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. A Christian view of abortion. Louis, Missouri : Concordia Publishing House. Contraception and abortion from the ancient world to the Renaissance. A Treatise on the Soul. Ante-Nicene Fathers. Spencer ed. De medicina. London: Heinemann. Refutation of all Heresies. In Daniel C. Maguire ed. Oxford : Oxford University Press.

King's American Dispensatory. Hildreth, MD November The Medical Magazine. Boston: William D. From the days of Aristotle to the present time, a certain class of medical writers have recommended this plant as safe, and more or less efficacious, in cases involving a suppression of the catamenia. Catamenia is blood or other material discharged from the uterus during menstruation. In William Smith ed. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Archived from the original on Rackham ed. Aristotle in 23 Volumes. August Management of Unintended and Abnormal Pregnancy 1st ed. Soranus' Gynecology. Retrieved 6 October Comparative Studies in Society and History.

December 31, Early Christian Fathers. Philadelphia: Westminster Press. Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Montague Summers ed. New York City : Dover Publications. Jason Aronson, Inc. Hall ed. Abortion in a Changing World. Columbia University Press. University of California Press. Mohr Doan Opposition and Intimidation:The abortion wars and strategies of political harassment. University of Michigan. Duke Law Journal. Women's History section of About. DeRobigne Mortimer Bennett. French Historical Studies. Duke University Press. Increasingly, writers in the latter half of the nineteenth century no longer referred to abortion as a last resort for the single, seduced girl but as a family planning measure employed by the married woman.

As a result the very nature of the idea and practice of abortion was transformed. American Journal of Public Health. PMC Health Sociology Review. S2CID Boston: James Campbell. Historical Studies. The Canadian Catholic Historical Association. Womens Health Issues. Archived from the original on February 2, By , medical procedures had improved for both childbirth and abortion but not equally, and induced abortion in the first trimester had become safer than childbirth. In , Roe vs. Wade acknowledged that abortion in the first trimester was safer than childbirth. Time communication — retrospective. Time Inc. Blackmun was also swayed by the fact that most abortion prohibitions were enacted in the 19th century when the procedure was more dangerous than now.

Suddenly: the American idea abroad and at home, — Free Press. January 28, Congressional Research Service. Archived from the original on May 14, Retrieved May 1, Encyclopedia of American law. Infobase Publishing. Population Reports. September 24, Pomona College. Archived from the original on August 15, Retrieved August 4, The Moral Property of Women. University of Illinois Press. Charles C. University of New Mexico Press. Monarch Books. The Captured Womb.

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